The Tsous are the minorities in Taiwan's aboriginal communities. Among the 14 ethnics of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, the Tsous have the smallest population. They are divided into the southern and northern Tsou, and speak three languages. The Tsuo communities in Kaohsiung County's Taoyuan Township belong to the Shaluwa sector and the ones in Namasia belong to the Kanakafu sector.
Kanakafu is a patrilineal clan-based society with highly concentrated patriarchal power. In the past, it was a rather aggressive ethnic group, and the Japanese colonial policies and the Han ethnic forced them into a limited territory and their wild temper was gradually tamed.
Management of the Kanakafu tribes is run by the council of elders. The leader position is customarily assumed by the elder of the largest clan, who also acts as the convener of the tribal meetings. All tribal affairs are decided in the tribal meetings before put into enforcement. The spiritual center of the Tsous is the assembly hall in the largest clan. It is used for youth training and tribal activities and only the large clans have the privilege to own an assembly hall; the regular villages are not allowed to set up such facilities. Inside of the assembly hall, exhibits of the "head-cage" and "fire tool box" are displayed. These items are symbols of war. Once a war breaks out, the warriers can take out the items as needed. The assembly hall is the gathering place in the tribe.
The Kanakafu people were originally hill farmers. Hunting, fishing, and raising livestock brought supplementary resources to the family. The main crops were millet, rice, and taro. Millet brew, potato brew, and tobacco are the favorites of the Kanakafu people. In traditional crafts, pottery and weaving were works of women; Unfortunately, the crafts are disappearing. Rattan and bamboo baskets are still the indispensable utensils. The Kanakafu people have a unique style of leather art, but it is a rare craft nowadays and only seen in celebrations worn by the men. The representative embroidery works are found in the chest pouches worn by the men.
Like other aboriginal communities, the Kanakafu also have the custom of body decoration.